To develop innovations in quantum engineering and nanosystems, designers need to adopt the expertise that has been developed in research laboratories. This requires a thorough understanding of the experimental measurement techniques and theoretical models, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. This book presents experimental methods enabling the development and characterization of materials at the nanometer scale, based on practical engineering cases, such as 5G and the interference of polarized light when applied for electromagnetic waves. Using the example of electromechanical, multi-physical coupling in piezoelectric systems, smart materials technology is discussed, with an emphasis on scale reduction and mechanical engineering applications. Statistical analysis methods are presented in terms of their usefulness in systems engineering for experimentation, characterization or design, since safety factors and the most advanced reliability calculation techniques are included from the outset. This book provides valuable support for teachers and researchers but is also intended for engineering students, working engineers and Master?s students.
This book describes the methods used to detect material defects at the nanoscale. The authors present different theories, polarization states and interactions of light with matter, in particular optical techniques using polarized light. Combining experimental techniques of polarized light analysis with techniques based on theoretical or statistical models to study faults or buried interfaces of mechatronic systems, the authors define the range of validity of measurements of carbon nanotube properties. The combination of theory and pratical methods presented throughout this book provide the reader with an insight into the current understanding of physicochemical processes affecting the properties of materials at the nanoscale.
Nanoscience, nanotechnologies and the laws of quantum physics are sources of disruptive innovation that open up new fields of application. Quantum engineering enables the development of very sensitive materials, sensor measurement systems and computers. Quantum computing, which is based on two-level systems, makes it possible to manufacture computers with high computational power. This book provides essential knowledge and culminates with an industrial application of quantum engineering and nanotechnologies. It presents optical systems for measuring at the nanoscale, as well as quantum physics models that describe how a two-state system interacts with its environment. The concept of spin and its derivation from the Dirac equation is also explored, while theoretical foundations and example applications aid in understanding how a quantum gate works. Application of the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) method of mechanical structures is implemented, in order to ensure reliability of estimates from the measurement of mechanical properties of carbon nanotube structures. This book provides valuable support for teachers and researchers but is also intended for engineering students, working engineers and Master?s students.